Farmer, Carson J. Q.
Commuting flows & local labour markets:
Spatial interaction modelling of travel-to-work.
PhD thesis, National University of Ireland Maynooth.
One of the most promising approaches to mitigating land-use and transportation
problems is continued research on urban commuting. Commuting is essential
to many individuals, allowing them to participate in the labour market and
earn a living to meet their essential needs. As such, a better understanding of
the determinants of commuting will ultimately lead to a better understanding
of the complexities of employment, housing, and the many spatial processes underlying
commuting. However, in order to understand the commuting process,
it is important to examine the milieu within which commuting takes place:
the local labour market (LLM). In this thesis, the interplay between commuting
and LLMs is explored through the use of regionalisation techniques and
spatial interaction models. It is shown that LLM characteristics play a significant
role in intra-regional commuting patterns and that a failure to account
for LLM conditions may seriously hinder the applicability of models of commuting.
Specically, it is found that there are many dierent LLMs across
Ireland, and that these LLMs characterise the commuting patterns of population
sub-groups. By incorporating these LLMs into models of commuting,
this thesis shows that in addition to distance and working population size,
the spatial structure of origins and destinations and a number of non-spatial
attributes such as unemployment, housing density, and education, all signi-
cantly aect commuting
ows. Furthermore, the distance decay component of
these models appears to be capturing a combination of geographical distance
and regional dierentiation due to LLM boundaries, leading to `functional' distance
decay. This concept of functional distance decay is a key nding of this
thesis, and indicates that in addition to the conguration of origins and destinations,
distance decay is also dependent on the spatial structure of LLMs,
or more generally, the totality of surrounding conditions within which spatial
interaction takes place.
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