Are There Sex Differences in Geographic Knowledge and Understanding?
The Geographical Journal, 162 (3).
Research by both geographers and psychologists suggests that there are differences in
females' and males' everyday geographic and spatial knowledge. These differences in
knowledge have been attributed to variances in biology and hormonal levels; differences
in social status, culture and education; and differences in the ability to answer questions
and think about geographic space. This paper examines these theories and explores the
everyday geographic knowledge of females and males using both quantitative exercises
and qualitative interviews. In contrast to most studies, only a few minor differences were
found between females' and males' knowledge, their ability to answer the questions set
and the strategies of spatial thought employed and it is suggested that any differences
found between the sexes in other studies are due to socio-cultural factors reinforcing
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