Ciccia, Rossella and O Riain, Sean
Beyond the standard work model? Varieties of flexible
working time organization in Europe (NIRSA) Working Paper Series. No. 71.
NIRSA - National Institute for Regional and Spatial Analysis.
Working time has been among the first aspect of the employment relation to be the object of
intense regulation at the national and supra-national level. This standard regulation of
working time comprised a number of elements: full-time hours, rigid working schedules,
strong employers’ control and clear boundaries around working time In spite of general
claims about the erosion of this model, few studies have investigated this process in a
comparative and empirical perspective. The aim of this paper is to investigate the diversity of
working time arrangements in European economies by applying latent class analysis to data
from the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). This analysis shows the existence of
six different types of working time organization highlighting five cross-national patterns:
multiple flexibilities, extended flexibility, standard, rigid and fragmented time.
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